Aryabhata was not only a great scientist and mathematician of the ancient world. Acharya Aryabhatta did not give any contribution to scientific advancement, but made four changes.
This great scientist was born in the Gupta period of India’s golden age. Thanks to great scientists like Aryabhatta in the Guptas, India has made a lot of progress in the fields of literature, arts and science.
The first Indian scientist to give clear explanation of his birth date
Aryabhatt wrote in his treatise Aryabhatiya that he composed this book after 3600 years of Kaliyug and he is 23 years of age while writing it. According to the Indian calendar, the beginning of Kaliyug was started in 3101 BC, it means that Aryabhata was born in 476 AD. In this way, Aryabhatta was the first scientist of India giving clear details of his birth.
Although there is clear information about the time of Aryabhata’s birth, there is a dispute about his birthplace. According to historians, he was born in Patna, then in Maharashtra. Although there is a dispute about their birthplace, all the historians agree that their book was influenced by Aryabhatiya, the Gupta king Buddha Gupta made him the head of the Nalanda University.
Not Aryabhata, say Aryabhatta
Sometimes we also address Aryabhatta as ‘Aryabhatta’. But his correct name was Aryabhatta. Firstly Dr. Bhau Daji made it clear that his real name is Aryabhata, not Aryabhatta. Some scholars argue that Aryabhatta was a Brahmin, so the word Bhatt should be used to write Aryabhatta to Aryabhatta. But some scholars consider the word ‘Bhat’ mistakenly as ‘Bhat’, but the actual motto of the word Bhat is from ‘warrior’.
In reality, Aryabhatta had been patiently competing with the conservative views that came from centuries as a warrior. Significantly, his book Aryabhatiya’s commentators and other predecessors have addressed him as ‘Aryabhat’.
Compositions of Aryabhata (texts)
The historian believes that Aryabhata had composed many texts, but at present, his four texts are available – Aryabhatiya, DashGuidika, Tantra and Aryabhata theory. The Aryabhatta doctrine is not fully available, its only 34 verses are known.
Aryabhatta’s most popular treatise is Aryabhatiya. This name was not given by Aryabhat, but an Indian mathematician Bhaskar, who came after about 100 years in his writings, called this treatise as Aryabhatiya.
There are a total of 121 stanzas in Aryabhatiya, which are divided into four parts – Deshsudika, Mathipad, Kalakriya and Golapad.
1. There is only 13 verses in the demographics section. After the recitation of Brahma and Parabrahma in these shlokas, the first five planets, including the Sun, Moon, Hindu Calligraphy and Trigonometry have been discussed.
2. There is a total of 33 verses in the mathematages section. These verses have brief information on arithmetic, algebra and geometry.
3. Information on the motions of the planets, including the Hindu calendar calculations, is given in 25 verses of the kalakriya part.
4. Golpad has 50 verses containing information related to Space Science. Including distance from the planets and from the sun, this information has been given to explain how solar eclipse and lunar eclipse occur.
Aryabhatta’s 12 important contributions to mathematics and astronomy
1. Aryabhatta described the circumference of the earth as 39,968.05 km, which is just 0.2 percent less than the actual length (40,075.01 kilometers).
2. Aryabhata had told the height of the atmosphere 80 kilometers. Actually, the height of the atmosphere is more than 1600 kilometers, but 99 percent of its area is limited to 80 kilometers.
General information of the atmosphere
3. Aryabhata told about the distance of the planets from the Sun. It is similar to the current measurement. Today, the sun’s distance from Earth is considered to be about 15 million kilometers. This is called a 1 (astronomical unit). The values and values of Aryabhatta are like this:
Current value of planet Aryabhatta
Mercury 0.375 AU 0.387 AU
Fri 0.725 AU 0.723 AU
Mars 1.538 AU 1.523 AU
Master 4.16 AU 4.20 AU
Sat 9.41 AU 9.54 AU
4. Aryabhata had measured the speed of relative Earth rotation from stars, and said that the length of one day is 23 hours 56 minutes and 4.1 seconds, which is actually only 0.86 seconds less. Even before Aryabhata many Greeks, Unani and Indian scientists had told the length of one day time, but it was not as accurate as the calculation of Aryabhatta.
5. According to Aryabhatta, the length of one year equals 365.25868 days, which is approximately equal to modern calculation 365.25636.
6. Aryabhatta had told the period of rounding of the Moon around the Moon, equal to 27.32167 days, which is approximately equal to modern calculation 27.32166.
7. Writing marks by writing marks – Friends, you must have heard that Aryabhata had invented Zero but your information is wrong. In fact, he started writing calculations with special symbols. Before them, calculations were written in words (such as one, two, three, geara, fifteen, twenty etc.), but they started writing computations in modern numbers system (like 1, 2, 3, 11, 15, 20 etc.). (Note here that there are 1,2,3 English signes, while Aryabhatt used some of the symbols, which are no longer known.)
8. Aryabhatta not only told why the solar eclipse and lunar eclipse take place, but also the time to get the eclipse formula. He also gave a formula to find out how long the eclipse will last.
9. Aryabhat had correctly told the value of the pie to four digits (3.1416) of the decimal point.
10. Aryabhata had discovered the sin and cosine of trigonometry. Aryabhatt called them ‘Jai’ and ‘Kojya’. (Cosine is an impaired form of cosine.) This means that the trigonometry taught in the whole world today, in reality, was searched by Aryabhata.
11. Aryabhata considered the universe as eternally infinite. According to Indian philosophy, the creation of this universe has been created by combining the five elements of fire, water, air, earth and sky. But Aryabhata did not regard the sky as an element.
12. Aryabhatta canceled the prevailing concept of the time that the earth is at the center of this universe. According to Aryabhatta, the Sun is situated in the center of the Solar System and the rest of the planet including the Earth revolves around it.
Friends, it was our great India and the great teacher of Aryabhatta, due to which we can say that our India has not only given the world but also gave it much more.
aryabhata satellite hindi
Friends, this great saint of India has not only given the country but the whole world has given great respect. India named its first satellite named Aryabhatta, which was released on April 19, 1975 in space. India is the first country that did not give its first satellite the name of a fictitious goddess, but named it a great mathematician.
In the year 1976, the international organization UNESCO celebrated 1500th birth anniversary of Aryabhatta. A big rift on the moon is named as Aryabhatta. One of the bacteria discovered by the ISRO in the stratosphere layer of the atmosphere has been named ‘Bacillus Aryabhat’. A scientific institute located near Nainital has been named as ‘Aryabhat Observational Science Research Institute’ in honor of Aryabhatta.